Pan America Environmental manufactures the Slant Plate Clarifier, commonly referred to as inclined plate clarifier and lamella clarifier. The SPC Series Slant Plate Clarifiers are designed for settling solids and precipitated metals. The compact SPCs are designed with many features and options to provide engineers, system integrators and end users with convenience and flexibility in system integration choices. Customization & modifications are available.
Chemical pretreatment is typically used to improve contaminant removal. Model sizing is based on the product to be removed, flow rate and other application parameters. We offer many sizes up to 4000 square feet and many types of chemical pretreatment systems to settle solids metals and other products requiring settling. Lamella plate clarifiers are a proven technology with wide application.
Customization & modifications to fit your project needs are offered.
• Scrubber water solids
• Coal fines
• Fluoride removal
• Phosphate removal
• Bottom ash
• Vegetable processing
• Filter backwash water
• Solids and turbidity from surface water
• Mill scale
• Cooling tower blow down
• Heavy metal precipitation
• Textile stone washing
• Abrasive polishing
• Paint booth solids
• Food grade starch
CRT Series Chemical Reaction Treatment Systems
Chemical preconditioning of the wastewater is often required. Pretreatment systems are typically provided as gravity flow systems from the inlet of the chemical treatment system through the outlet of the clarifier. The pretreatment system can be one, two or three stage process design.
A variety of chemical pretreatment systems can be provided to condition your wastestream to assist your Slant Plate Clarifier in increasing it’s settling efficiency.
Slant Plate Clarifier Operational Theory
Slant Plate Clarifiers: Are passive, physical separation systems designed for settling of solids that are denser than water through the implementation of lamella plate theory, under which Slant Plate Clarifiers and inclined plate clarifiers operate.
Settling Process: The water/solids mixture enters the SPC inlet, is immediately dispersed via a diffuser that reduces the velocity and turbulent flow into the influent chamber that further reduces the velocity and begins the settling process. The flow exits the bottom of the influent chamber and is diverted into a horizontal path and then begins a vertical path through the Slant Plate Pack where a series of settling plates are bound together in a settling pack. As the flow enters the pack the solids encounter the plates and stop their vertical motion by hitting the plates in their path. Once they hit these plates the solids fall downward to the plate surfaces beneath them and then slide down these plates, ultimately settling to the bottom of the sludge chamber.
In a Lamella plate type design a counter-current flow develops within the Slant Plate Pack where the flow rising upwardly through the plate pack passes over the solids as they slide down the plates in the opposite direction.
The settling or prediction of a particle’s ability to settle can be described by Stokes Law, wherein the particle density, the fluid it is part of and the time it takes for that particle to settle a certain distance in a period of time can be determined. The Lamella concept shortens this period of settlement time by interrupting the particle path with a surface area that forces it to stop and reverse it’s direction due to density differential between it and the carrier fluid.
Stokes Law: This equation relates the terminal settling or rise velocity of a smooth, rigid sphere in a viscous fluid of known density and viscosity to the diameter of the sphere when subjected to a known force field (gravity). The equation is:
V = (2gr²)(d1-d2)/9µ
V = velocity of rise (cm sec-¹),
g = acceleration of gravity (cm sec-²),
r = “equivalent” radius of particle (cm),
dl = density of particle (g cm -³),
d2 = density of medium (g cm-³), and
µ = viscosity of medium (dyne sec cm-²).
Slant Plate Pack: The Slant Plate Pack is designed to rest at a 55°angle giving the plates an optimum angle for settling. The Lamella concept is simply the relocating of an equivalent surface area available in a large, open tank to the surfaces of numerous plates in contact with the wasteflow, the Slant Plate Clarifier tank size can be reduced considerably when compared to a conventional clarifier. The projected, surface area is equivalent to the surface area of an equally sized circular clarifier.
The plates provide a projected, horizontal surface area. This projected area demonstrates the area available for settling.
– Plating shops
– Produced water
– Manufacturing plants
– Textile stone wash
– Surface water pretreatment
– Petrochemical plants
– Metals processing plants
– Steel mills
– Scrubber water
– Cooling tower blowdown
– Drinking water pretreatment
– Drinking water treatment
– Power plants
Metals Removal Performance
Following the precipitation/flocculation stages if the particulate settle then a Slant Plate Clarifier is required. The Slant Plate Clarifier is the device of choice and will provide the following typical settling performance:
SPC discharge (mg/L)
Metal Reduction Precipitation Form
Units of concentration: mg/L
Arsenic: .005 Ferric hydroxide
Barium: .50 Sulfate
Cadmium: .05 Hydroxide
Copper: .02-.07 Hydroxide
Mercury: .001-.01 Alum. co precip
Nickel: .12 Hydroxide
Selenium: .05 Sulfide
Zinc: .10 Hydroxide