Industrial Waste Water Treatment

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EMULSION CRACKING 1-1

EC Emulsion Cracking System

Pan America Environmental manufactures emulsion cracking systems for emulsion breaking of a variety of waste types in industrial waste streams. EC Series emulsion breaking systems are designed to remove free/dispersed and emulsified hydrocarbon products in wastewater streams through the use of chemical cracking technology. The emulsion is cracked via pH adjustment and/or emulsion cracking chemistry. Oil water separation follows the cracking stage.

Many sizes, chemical processes and custom designs are offered up to 200 GPM. The compact EC Series emulsion cracking systems are designed for above grade applications with many features and options to provide engineers, system integrators and end users with convenience and flexibility in system integration choices. Customization & modifications are available.

 

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Pan America Environmental manufactures emulsion cracking systems for emulsion breaking of a variety of waste types in industrial wastestreams. EC Series emulsion breaking systems are designed to remove free/dispersed and emulsified hydrocarbon products in wastewater streams through the use of chemical cracking technology.The emulsion is cracked via pH adjustment and/or emulsion cracking chemistry. Oil water separation follows the cracking stage.

Many sizes, chemical processes and custom designs are offered up to 200 GPM. The compact EC Series emulsion cracking systems are designed for above grade applications with many features and options to provide engineers, system integrators and end users with convenience and flexibility in system integration choices. Customization & modifications are available.

Customization & modifications to fit your project needs are offered. Typical performance is 10 ppm or less, 30 micron oil droplet.

Products removed: motor oils, fuels (vehicle/jet), fuel oils, hydraulic fluids, immiscible machining oils, lube oil, transmission fluid, bunker c, DNAPLs, LNAPLs, vegetable based oils, crude, air compressor lube & other hydrocarbon based derivatives (BTEX etc..). Model sizing is based on the oil/fuel specific gravity, droplet size removal desired and other parameters of the wastestream.

Specifications

Specification Summary:
System model
Number of model sizes
Process  types
Volume range offered

Design Specification Summary

Performance
Design criteria
Influent chamber
Separation chamber
Solids hopper
Clean water effluent chamber
Water baffle
Weir plate
Oil skimmer
Oil reservoir
Media pack
Cover
Fittings
Base
Lifting lugs
Emulsion break chamber
Post adjustment chamber
pH Controls
Makeup tank
Control panel
Chemical pump operation
Voltage

Materials of Construction

Tanks
Piping
Testing
Surface preparation(steel)

Coatings (steel)

Mixer motors
Chemical metering pumps
Chemical pump diaphragms

Standards used

EC oil water separator
Emulsion Breaking System
10
Oil separation, TSS settling
5 – 200 GPM

 

10 mg/L or less 30 micron free, dispersed and non-emulsified oil droplet
API-421, 1990 & current coalescing media design theory
Influent diffuser or overflow weir
To contain Flopak media pack(s)
Located under and after separation chamber and TPI packs
Located after separation chamber
Water flows over this baffle to exit tank
Vertically adjustable weir plate to maintain operating water level
Fixed or adjustable weir plate integrated into the oil reservoir, located in the separation chamber
Located in separation chamber for temporary storage of skimmed oils
Single or multiple, Wave Plate or flat plate separation packs
Multiple section vapor retaining, gasketed with polyethylene gasket and attached via zinc plate fasteners
NPT couplings up to 3″, 4″ & larger: 150# ANSI B16.5 FF flange
Steel skid base of channel, beam or tube construction
(4) Minimum, located at lifting points on sidewalls of tank
Chamber is provided with a variable speed mixer, pH control and (2) chemical metering pumps.
Chamber is provided with a fixed speed mixer, pH controls and NaOH chemical metering pump.
(2) pH controllers and pH probes with quick disconnect assemblies.
Demulsifier makeup tank with mixer and controls as required per application.
NEMA 4
On/off
115V/1pH/60Hz, 230/460V/3pH/60Hz as required by system size or available facility power supply.

 

A-36 carbon steel, 304/316 SS, FRP, polyethylene, polypropylene
A-53 black steel, 304/316 SS, FRP, PVC
Dye penetrant on steel construction
Interior surfaces shall be prepared to an SSPC-SP10 near white metal blast. Exterior surfaces shall be prepared to an SSPC-SP6 commercial blast.
Interior coating will be coated with Ameron Coal Tar Epoxy Amercoat 78HB. Exterior coating will be Ameron epoxy primer, Amerlock.

TEFC, inverter duty
Solenoid actuated diaphragm design with built-in check valves
Matched to the chemical being pumped

Elements of AWS D1.1/1.1M, API, API-650, API-421, ANSI, IEC,AWS D1.6, UL, UL-508,UL-845,SSPC,ASME, CSA, NEMA, NFPA79, NEC

The EC Emulsion Cracking Systems

are designs that provide a combination of physical chemical treatment and separation via oil/water separation.

The basic EC system configuration consists of:
1st stage: emulsion breaking
2nd stage: product separation
3rd stage: pH adjustment for discharge (typically 6-9)

Stage 1:

provides for the addition of acid for a less rigorous, simple acid cracking method or singular/multiple polymers for more complex, stubborn emulsion cracking.

Stage 2:

provides for separation of the freed product via a coalescing oil/water separator or Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) system. In applications where the result sinks a Slant Plate Clarifier may be used in place of the other two.

Stage 3:

provides pH adjustment to return the water pH to the 6-9 range for discharge. Due to pH manipulation being required in most emulsion cracking applications, this step is typically required.

Determining Chemical Process:

Each emulsion must be tested in order to determine the chemistry, but also to determine system design. Analytical testing should be performed after the bench testing to verify process efficiency. We recommend the use of a chemical supply company that can perform on site jar testing and provide the proper chemicals for the daily operation.

Emulsions Defined

Emulsions are defined as a colloidal suspension of a liquid within another liquid (with droplet sizes typically under 20 micron). A colloidal suspension is a concentration of particles or droplets homogeneously dispersed through the carrier liquid (water). This means the oil droplets are reduced in size to such a degree that the oil’s normal electrical repulsion of the water molecule is overcome due to its minute size. Oil in water emulsions may contain a variety of oil types and concentrations, as well as various types of solids contaminants. The oil in water emulsion in a stable or unstable state maintains the emulsification through mechanical and/or chemical means.

Emulsions Are Created In Two Ways

Mechanical emulsion: In mechanical emulsions a common method of creating the emulsion is by violent mixing or shearing of the oil droplet in the wastestream with a high shear transfer pump, vigorous mixer or other device that might disperse the oil droplets into minute droplets. Given enough time, the mechanical emulsion may break without any treatment. But with most processes and manufacturing time frames this time may be too long for practical use.

Chemical emulsion:

Are created when a surface-active chemical or chemicals are used, such as alkaline cleaners containing surfactants, soaps and detergents having ionic or non-ionic characteristics. These chemicals interfere with the natural coalescing of oil droplets and generally creates a permanently stabilized emulsion with little chance of breaking by itself.

Coagulants

Emulsion cracking can be facilitated by the use of a coagulant/flocculent or pH changing chemical (acid/caustic). The chemical used depends on the particular emulsion. These chemicals change droplet electrical charges by the effect of their own charge, usually a cationic (positive) charge. This charge manipulation allows the oil droplets to become free and lets them coalesce (gather together) into larger droplets. The oils don’t always break out of emulsion into a free distinct layer. Sometimes they may be combined with solids or create a light mass that is in suspension, sinks or (usually) floats. The form and appearance of chemical emulsion cracking results can vary quite a bit from emulsion to emulsion. This variation helps to determine the type of equipment and processes required to treat the water.

The destruction of the emulsifying properties of the surface-active agent or neutralization of the charged droplet can be effected with the use of polymer products. A polymer or combination of polymers destabilize the electrical bond between oil and water allowing oils to free themselves, creating droplets and a distinct layer or flocculated mass. Flocculation refers to the successful collisions that occur when the destabilized particles (oil) are agglomerated via a bridging effect due to the flocculating polymer. The polymer acts like a broom, effectively stretching out in the water and bringing many small microfloc particles together into a larger visible mass. Depending on the nature of the flocculated mass in may sink, float or stay in suspension. Numerous bench tests should be performed to determine the proper chemical types, concentrations and combinations in order to achieve optimum treatment.

EC models

EC-4
EC-8
EC-12
EC-16
EC-24
EC-36
EC-48
EC-64
EC-80
EC-96

*Large sizes available.

Influent Feed System

Air operated, diaphragm pump with air controls or progressive cavity, centrifugal or electric diaphragm pumps are offered, sump level switches & Nema 4 control panel, skid mounted, 115/230/460V power offered.

Effluent Pumpout

Centrifugal pump with level switches & Nema 4 control panel, base mounted or tank mounted, 115/230/460V power offered. An external pumpout tank is included.

Tank Covers

Multi-sectioned covers with vapor vents, gasketing and cover hardware are provided to control odor, harmful/controlled vapors

Freeze Protection

Immersion heaters mounted through tank wall. Each heater has an independent thermocouple well, 30-60 deg. F thermostat and Nema 1 (or optional Nema 4 or 7) housing. 230/460V/3ph/60Hz power. Centralized master control panel can be provided (standard on large systems). Explosion proof systems also offered.

Polymer Blending/Aging System

In place of a metering pump & makedown tank a polymer blending/aging system can be provided when polymer consumption volume makes makedown tank size & frequency of making a polymer solution are impractical. Various flow rates can be provided.

Elevation Platform

Epoxy coated steel platforms or leg extensions to elevate tank to desired level can be provided.

Walkway

Walkways can be provided for full or partial SPC tank length to facilitate access to the tank top and internals. Handrails, self-closing safety gates are provided. Ladders or stairs are provided in conjunction with the walkway. A variety of materials can be provided for construction such as: coated carbon steel, stainless steel, FRP or aluminum. Designs are per OSHA standards.

Alarms

High effluent, influent and other alarm systems can be provided as stand alone or in combination with other options to indicate high, low or other conditions and trigger audible and/or visual indicators.

Liquid/Chemical Storage/Feed Tanks

A wide variety of tank volumes can be supplied for your chemical, water and sludge holding needs. Flat bottom and cone bottom designs constructed in polyethylene, fiberglass, steel & stainless steel can be provided.

Effluent Filter Systems

Solids filter systems can be provided to remove light loads of filterable solids from the SPC effluent. Contact Pan America to determine proper filtration needs for your application.

Chemical Makeup/Storage Tank

Coagulants & flocculants requiring makeup to a solution can be provided with a mixer tank to makeup & hold a particular volume as dictated by chemical usage. Typical construction is polyethylene with mixer mounted on top & controls in system control panel.

Explosion Proof Electrical

Electrical components: motors, conduit etc. are provided as explosion proof where required.

pH Adjustment Systems

pH adjustment or pH neutralization systems can be provided separately to maintain pH levels prior to or after the treatment system. Contact Pan America to determine proper system needs for your application.

Vent Carbon Absorber

GAC carbon filters can be provided to treat vapors in covered CRT tanks. Either self-aspirating or blower driven designs can be provided.

Applications

– Frac water
– Produced water
– Refineries
– Biodiesel plants
– Algae removal
– Petrochemical plants
– Groundwater remediation
– Dairies
– Ice cream production
– Cheese production
– Bakeries
– Drinking water pretreatment
– Sewage treatment plants
– Slaughter houses
– Rendering plants
– Vegetable processing plants
– Canning
– Poultry processing
– Pet food production
– Seafood production
– Pulp & paper mills
– Aircraft maintenance
– Ballast water
– Bilge water
– Latex removal
– Prepared foods
– Tank & truck wash

Performance

10 mg/L or less of oil droplets 30 micron and larger of emulsified, free and dispersed oils


Pan America Environmental, Inc
2309 N. Ringwood Rd., Ste G, McHenry, IL 60050 USA
815.344.2960   •   panam@panamenv.com